Rangkuman Kitab Muqadimah (Ibnu Khaldun) Part 1

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Oleh: Tita Novitasari (11140460000046)

Hukum Ekonomi Syariah

Fakultas Syariah dan Hukum

 

This book, now, we are going to explain such various aspects of civilization that affect human beings in their social organization, as royal authority, gainful occupation, sciences, and crafts, (all) in the light of various arguments that will show the true nature of the varied knowledge of the elite and the common people, repel misgivings, and remove doubts.

We say that man is distinguished from the other living beings by certain qualities peculiar to him, namely: (1) Sciences and crafts which result from that ability to think which distinguishes man from the other animals and exalts him as a thinking being over all creatures. (2) The need for restraining influence and strong authority, since man, alone of all the animals, cannot exist without them. It is true, something has been said (in this connection about bees and locusts. However, if they have something similar, it comes to them through inspiration, not through thinking or reflection. (3) Man’s efforts to make a living and his concern with the various ways of obtaining and acquiring the means of (life). This is the result of man’s need for food to keep alive and subsist, which God instilled in him, guiding him to desire and seek a livelihood. God said: “He gave everything its natural characteristics, and then guided it.”

The discussion in this work falls naturally under six chapter headings:

  1. On human civilization in general, its various kinds, and the portion of the earth that is civilized.
  2. On desert civilization, including a report on the tribes and savage nations.
  3. On dynasties, the caliphate, and royal authority, including a discussion of government ranks.
  4. On sedentary civilization, countries, and cities.
  5. On crafts, ways of making a living, gainful occupations, and their various aspects.
  6. On the sciences, their acquisition and study.

Chapter I : Human civilization in general, its various kinds, and the portion of the earth that is civilized.

Poin-poin untuk bagian ini di antaranya ialah:

  1. Manusia adalah makhluk yang suka sekali berpolitik. Ibnu Khaldun mengutip ungkapan orang Yunani yang menyatakan bahwa “Man is `political’ by nature.” That is, he cannot do without the social organization for which the philosophers use the technical term “town” (polis). Yakni, secara alami manusia memang selalu berpolitik. Oleh karenanya, manusia tidak bisa menyalurkan nalurinya ini tanpa organisasi sosial. Filosof biasa menyebut organisasi sosial tersebut sebagai polis yang artinya kota. Jadi, menurut Ibnu Khaldun peradaban (Civilitation) adalah karakter utama dari organisasi sosial manusia (the necessary character of human social organization).
  2. Manusia berlomba-lomba dalam memenuhi kebutuhan pokoknya terhadap makanan. Menurut Ibnu Khaldun: God created and fashioned man in a form that can live and subsist only with the help of food. He guided man to a natural desire for food and instilled in him the power that enables him to obtain it. Namun, manusia tidak mungkin menciptakan makanannya sendiri. Misalnya dalam bercocok tanam, manusia membutuhkan banyak peralatan pertanian, sehingga ia membutuhkan bantuan orang lain untuk menyediakan peralatan yang ia butuhkan itu. Karenanya, pembagian kerja (division of labor) di antara sekelompok manusia yang tinggal di suatu wilayah itu diperlukan. Ungkapan Ibnu Khaldun mengenai hal ini ialah: However, the power of the individual human being is not sufficient for him to obtain (the food) he needs, and does not provide him with as much food as he requires to live. Even if we assume an absolute minimum of food-that is, food enough for one day, (a little) wheat, for instance-that amount of food could be obtained only after much preparation such as grinding, kneading, and baking. Each of these three operations requires utensils and tools that can be provided only with the help of several crafts, such as the crafts of the blacksmith, the carpenter, and the potter. Assuming that a man could eat unprepared grain, an even greater number of operations would be necessary in order to obtain the grain: sowing and reaping, and threshing to separate it from the husks of the ear. Each of these operations requires a number of tools and many more crafts than those just mentioned. It is beyond the power of one man alone to do all that, or (even) part of it, by himself. Thus, he cannot do without a combination of many powers from among his fellow beings, if he is to obtain food for himself and for them. Through cooperation, the needs of a number of persons, many times greater than their own (number), can be satisfied.
  3. Untuk menciptakan sebuah kota, manusia membutuhkan seseorang yang mampu menjaga stabilitas kota itu sendiri. Itulah mengapa, dalam sebuah kota, pasti ada seseorang yang mendominasi kota dan mampu mengamankan kota. Berikut kutipannya: He must dominate them and have power and authority over them, so that no one of them will be able to attack another. This is the meaning of royal authority. Yakni orang itu harus mendominasi masyarakat kota, memiliki kekuatan dan otoritas terhadap mereka, maka dengan ini, keamanan kota akan terjamin. Inilah yang disebut dengan otoritas raja.

 

Chapter II : Desert (Bedouin) civilization, including a report on the tribes and savage nations.

Poin yang dibahas dalam bagian ini adalah:

  1. Both Bedouins and sedentary people are natural groups (kelompok yang nomaden maupun yang menetap adalah kelompok yang terbentuk secara alami).

Manusia memiliki kemampuan, keahlian, atau kecenderungan yang berbeda satu sama lain. Sebagian ahli di bidang pertanian dan perkebunan. Sebagian yang lain ahli dalam peternakan. Karenanya, kebutuhan yang mereka perlukan untuk mengoptimalkan itu semua pun berbeda. Ada yang mesti menetap, dan ada yang mesti berpindah-pindah atau tinggal di padang pasir yang luas.

  1. Only tribes held together by group feeling can live in the desert (hanya suku yang bisa bekerja sama dan loyal yang bisa hidup di padang pasir).

Kerasnya kehidupan yang harus dijalani oleh suku Badui menjadikan suku ini loyal terhadap keluarga dan sukunya. Mereka saling menjaga dan melindungi dari bahaya yang seringkali muncul di padang pasir.

  1. Group feeling results only from (blood) relationship or something corresponding to it. Secara otomatis, manusia akan menjaga keluarganya guna menjaga harga diri (gengsi) keluarganya tersebut. Dari sinilah lahir perasaan atau cita yang sejalan di hati para anggota keluarga (group feeling).
  2. Leadership over people who share in a given group feeling cannot be vested in those not of the same descent.

Ibnu Khaldun menerangkan: This is because leadership exists only through superiority, and superiority only through group feeling, as we have mentioned before. Lebih jauh lagi ia menyatakan bahwa Leadership must of necessity be inherited from the person who is entitled to it, in accordance with the fact, which we have stated, that superiority results from group feeling.

  1. The goal to which group feeling leads is royal authority.

Sebagaimana yang sudah dijelaskan dalam bagian pertama bahwa manusia membutuhkan orang yang mampu menjaga stabilitas kota. Orang yang mereka butuhkan merupakan orang yang memiliki kelebihan di antara yang lain, atau di antara orang-orang yang sejalan dengannya (group feeling). Pada akhirnya, group feeling ini bermuara pada kekuasaan dalam bentuk kerajaan yang monarki. Keluarga yang paling superior akan menguasai keluarga lain yang tergabung di kotanya.

 

Chapter III : Dynasties, the caliphate, and royal authority, including a discussion of government ranks.

Dalam bagian ini akan diuraikan mengenai negara-negara secara umum, kerajaan, khilafah, dan jenjang-jenjang kekuasaan. Juga diuraikan sebab-sebab yang menumbuhkan kekuasaan, cara mengukuhkan negara, dan sebab-sebab yang membuat runtuhnya suatu negara.

Sebagaimana yang sudah dijelaskan dalam bagian sebelumnya, bahwa orang rela bertarung dan mati demi nama baik kelompok atau keluarganya. Sebuah kerajaan dilahirkan dari kesetiaan kelompok (group feeling)[1]. Namun, dalam perkembangannya suatu kerajaan sering kali lupa pada apa yang melahirkannya tersebut. Rakyat yang menopang eksistensi kerajaan malah banyak yang tertindas dan ditindas. Padahal tanpa Allah dan rakyat, kerajaan bukanlah apa-apa. Ibnu Khaldun dalam Muqadimah menyatakan dengan tegas: Group feeling is no longer needed to establish their power. They do not know how it was at the beginning and what difficulties had to be overcome by the founder of (the dynasty). The inhabitants of Spain especially have forgotten group feeling and its influence, because so long a time has passed, and because as a rule they have no need of the power of group feeling, since their country has been annihilated and is depleted of tribal groups. Ibnu Khaldun memperkuat pendapatnya ini dengan beberapa contoh berikut ini:

  1. Something of the sort happened to the ‘Abbasids. The group feeling of the Arabs had been destroyed by the time of the reign of al-Mu’tasim and his son, al-Wathiq. They tried to maintain their hold over the government thereafter with the help of Persian, Turkish, Daylam, Saljuq, and other clients. Then, the Persians (non-Arabs) and clients gained power over the provinces (of the realm). The influence of the dynasty grew smaller, and no longer extended beyond the environs of Baghdad. Eventually, the Daylam closed in upon (that area) and took possession of it. The caliphs were ruled by them. Then (the Daylam), in turn, lost control. The Saljugs seized power after the Daylam, and the (caliphs) were ruled by them. Then (the Saljugs), in turn, lost control. Finally, the Tatars closed in. They killed the caliph and wiped out every vestige of the dynasty.
  2. The same happened to the Sinhajah in the Maghrib. Their group feeling was destroyed in the fifth [eleventh] century, or before that. Dynastic (power), but of decreasing importance, was maintained by them in al-Mahdiyah, in Bougie, in al-Qal’ah, and in the other frontier cities of Ifriqiyah. Frequently, some rival aspirant to royal authority would attack these frontier cities and entrench himself in them. Yet, they retained government and royal authority until God permitted their dynasty to be wiped out. Then the Almohads came, fortified by the strong group feeling among the Masmudah, and obliterated all traces of the (Sinhajah dynasty).
  3. The same happened to the Umayyad dynasty in Spain. When its Arab group feeling was destroyed, the reyes de taifas (small princes) seized power and divided the territory among themselves. In competition with each other, they distributed among themselves the realm of the (Umayyad) dynasty. Each one of them seized the territory under his control and aggrandized himself. (These rulers) learned of the relations that existed between the non- Arabs (in the East) and the ‘Abbasids. (Imitating them,) they adopted royal surnames and used royal trappings. There was no danger that anyone would take (the prerogatives they claimed) away from them or alter (the situation in this respect), because Spain was no (longer the) home of groups and tribes, as we shall mention.

Royal authority is a noble and enjoyable position. It comprises all the good things of the world, the pleasures of the body, and the joys of the soul. Therefore, there is, as a rule, great competition for it. Itulah sebabnya, mengapa manusia berlomba-lomba untuk memperoleh kekuasaan dan melupakan tujuan hakiki dari kekuasaan itu sendiri.

Ibnu Khaldun mengemukakan bahwa suatu dinasti tidak akan bertahan melebihi tiga generasi. Muqadimah mencatat: We have stated that the duration of the life of a dynasty does not as a rule extend beyond three generations. Berikut uraian tiap jenjang generasi ini:

  1. The first generation retains the desert qualities, desert toughness, and desert savagery. (Its members are used to) privation and to sharing their glory (with each other); they are brave and rapacious. Therefore, the strength of group feeling continues to be preserved among them. They are sharp and greatly feared. People submit to them. Under the influence of royal authority and a life of ease.
  2. The second generation changes from the desert attitude to sedentary culture, from privation to luxury and plenty, from a state in which everybody shared in the glory to one in which one man claims all the glory for himself while the others are too lazy to strive for (glory), and from proud superiority to humble subservience. Thus, the vigor of group feeling is broken to some extent. People become used to lowliness and obedience. But many of (the old virtues) remain in them, because they had had direct personal contact with the first generation and its conditions, and had observed with their own eyes its prowess and striving for glory and its intention to protect and defend (itself). They cannot give all of it up at once, although a good deal of it may go. They live in hope that the conditions that existed in the first generation may come back, or they live under the illusion that those conditions still exist.
  3. The third generation, then, has (completely) forgotten the period of desert life and toughness, as if it had never existed. They have lost (the taste for) the sweetness of fame and (for) group feeling, because they are dominated by force. Luxury reaches its peak among them, because they are so much given to a life of prosperity and ease. They become dependent on the dynasty and are like women and children who need to be defended (by someone else). Group feeling disappears completely.

Tiga jenjang generasi ini bermula dari padang pasir yang keras, namun sarat akan loyalitas anggota kelompok, keberanian, kesetiaan, ketangguhan, dan komitmen. Selanjutnya di zaman generasi kedua, loyalitas anggota kelompok (rakyat) musnah oleh kemewahan kerajaan yang digenggam berkat usaha keras dari orang-orang generasi awal, namun jejak perjuangan generasi awal masih terasa di kalangan ksatria yang menua. Hingga pada akhirnya, jejak perjuangan itu terlupakan di era generasi ketiga. Loyalitas rakyat hilang seutuhnya. Kerajaan tidak lagi solid. Ksatria tidak lagi segagah dulu. Militer kerajaan menjadi rapuh. Stabilitas keamanan, politik, ekonomi, dan aspek lainnya terancam. Kerajaan hanya tinggal menunggu detik-detik kehancurannya.

Ibnu Khaldun membagi tingkatan dinasti ke dalam lima bagian, yaitu sebagai berikut:

  • The first stage is that of success, the overthrow of all opposition, and the appropriation of royal authority from the preceding dynasty. Kebijakan raja diperuntukan bagi rakyat dan kemajuan dinastinya. Dinasti masih sarat dengan group feeling.
  • The second stage is the one in which the ruler gains complete control over his people, claims royal authority all for himself, excluding them, and prevents them from trying to have a share in it. Raja memegang kekuasaan yang otoriter dan sangat haus akan ekspansi wilayah.
  • The third stage is one of leisure and tranquillity in which the fruits of royal authority are enjoyed. Raja menikmati buah dari dari kekuasaannya. Raja mulai membangun dinastinya, menata kota, membuat hukum, menetapkan pajak, dan sebagainya.
  • The fourth stage is one of contentment and peacefulness. The ruler is content with what his predecessors have built. He lives in peace with all his royal peers.
  • The fifth stage is one of waste and squandering. In this stage, the ruler wastes on pleasures and amusements (the treasures) accumulated by his ancestors, through (excessive) generosity to his inner circle and at their parties. Kehidupan yang serba mewah menggorogoti mental para pemimpin dinasti dan tidak menutup kemungkinan juga rakyatnya.

Selanjutnya Ibnu Khaldun membedakan antara negara yang dipimpin oleh khalifah (khilafah) dan negara yang dipimpin oleh imam (imamah). Ia juga menguraikan fungsi dari pedang dan pena bagi dinasti, dan karakter dinasti yang ideal. Materi yang paling penulis soroti adalah materi tentang ketidakadilan. Menurut Ibnu Khaldun: Injustice should not be understood to imply only the confiscation of money or other property from the owners, without compensation and without cause. It is commonly understood in that way, but it is something more general than that. Whoever takes someone’s property, or uses him for forced labor, or presses an unjustified claim against him, or imposes upon him a duty not required by the religious law, does an injustice to that particular person. People who collect unjustified taxes commit an injustice. Those who infringe upon property (rights) commit an injustice. Those who take away property commit an injustice. Those who deny people their rights commit an injustice. Those who, in general, take property by force, commit an injustice. It is the dynasty that suffers from all these acts, in as much as civilization, which is the substance of the dynasty, is ruined when people have lost all incentive. Ibnu Khaldun menjelaskan dengan gamblang apa itu ketidakadilan. Ia meletakan konsep keadilan yang komprehensif dan jelas batasannya, serta menegaskan akibat dari lost all incentive (masyarakat yang dirugikan oleh peraturan pajak pemerintah).

Sedikit gambaran: hemat saya, bagian dalam part 1 menekankan group feeling sebagai inti pembahasannya. Kemudian, apa itu group feeling? kenapa group feeling begitu penting bagi peradaban manusia? well, kita korelasikan dengan Indonesia. Indonesia tidak akan pernah merdeka tanpa rasa nasionalisme para patriot dan masyarakatnya, kan? yes, that’s the name of group feeling in our nation… sebutan group feeling untuk rakyat kita tidak lain adalah nasionalisme dan patriotisme.

 

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